Rilexine 75 mg for cats and dogs over 5 kg 1 tablet
Treatment of bacterial skin infections in dogs, cutaneous and subcutaneous infections in cats and urinary-tract infections in cats and dogs
Rilexine 75mg tablets
2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION OF Rilexine 75mg
For one 180-mg tablet: - active ingredient cefalexin (as cefalexin monohydrate) 75 mg
For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM OF Rilexine 75mg
Tablet Ovaloid, divisible, palatable tablet
4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS OF Rilexine 75mg
4.1 Target species
Cats and dogs
4.2 Indications for use, specifying the target species
For the treatment of bacterial skin infections in dogs (including deep and superficial pyodermas) caused by organisms susceptible to cefalexin. For the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous infections (wounds and abscesses) in cats caused by organisms susceptible to cefalexin. For the treatment of urinary-tract infections in cats and dogs (including nephritis and cystitis) caused by organisms susceptible to cefalexin.
Do not use in animals which are known to be hypersensitive to penicillins and cephalosporins. Do not use in rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters and gerbils.
4.4 Special warnings for each target species
4.5 Special precautions for use
i. Special precautions for use in animals
As with other antibiotics which are excreted mainly by the kidneys, unnecessary accumulation may occur in the body when renal function is impaired. In case of known renal insufficiency, the dose should be reduced and antimicrobials known to be nephrotoxic should not be administered concurrently. This product should not be used to treat puppies of less than 1 kg of bodyweight or kittens under 9 weeks of age. Use of the product deviating from the instructions given in the S.P.C. may increase the prevalence of bacteria resistant to cefalexin and may decrease the effectiveness of treatment with other cephalosporins and penicillins, due to the potential for cross-resistance. Local treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous infections in cats should be considered as a complement of the antibiotic treatment. Use of the product should be based on susceptibility testing of the bacteria isolated from the animal. If this is not possible, therapy should be based on local epidemiological information.
ii. Special precautions for the person administering the veterinary medicinal product to animals
Penicillins and cephalosporins may cause hypersensitivity (allergy) following injection, inhalation, ingestion or skin contact. Hypersensitivity to penicillins may lead to cross-reactions to cephalosporin and vice versa. Allergic reations to these substances may occasionally be serious. 1. Do not handle this product if you know you are sensitised or if you have been advised not to work with such preparations. Handle this product with great care to avoid exposure, taking all recommended precautions. Wash hands after use.If you develop symptoms following exposure such as skin rash, you should seek medical advice and show the doctor this warning. Swelling of the face, lips or eyes or difficulty in breathing are more-serious symptoms and require urgent medical attention.
iii. Other precautions
4.6 Adverse reactions (frequency and seriousness)
Trabsient episodes of soft faeces and vomiting may be observed in cats during treatment Hypersensitivity to cefalexin is rare, however, the product should not be administered to animals which are known to be hypersensitive to Cefalexin or penicillins. Refer also to section 4.3.
4.7 Use during pregnancy, lactation or lay
The product can be used in pregnant and lactating animals
4.8 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
4.9 Amount(s) to be administered and administration route
15 mg of cefalexin per kg of bodyweight twice daily (equivalent to 30 mg per kg of bodyweight per day) for a duration of: - 5 days in case of cutaneous and subcutaneous infections (wounds and abscesses) in cats; - 14 days in case of urinary-tract infection in cats and dogs; - at least 15 days in case of superficial infectious dermatitis in dogs; - at least 28 days in case of deep infectious dermatitis in dogs.
To achieve this dosage, administer in cats and dogs: one tablet per 5 kg of bodyweight or ½ tablet per 2.5 kg of bodyweight. Any remaining ½ tablet should be safely stored in the original box in the opened blister.
To ensure correct dosage, bodyweight should be determined as accurately as possible to avoid underdosing. Due to its palatable formulation, the product is well accepted by cats and dogs but may be crushed or added to food if necessary. In severe or acute conditions, the dose may be safely doubled.
4.10 Overdose (symptoms, emergency procedures, antidotes), if necessary
Trials performed on animals with up to 5 times the recommended dose of 15 mg/kg demonstrated that the product is well tolerated.
4.11 Withdrawal period(s)
5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF Rilexine 75mg
Antibacterials for systemic use, first generation cephalosporins
ATC Vet Code:
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Cefalexin acts by inhibiting the nucleopeptide synthesis of the bacterial wall. Cephalosporins interfere with the enzymes of transpepditation making it unable to cross-link the peptidoglycans of the bacterial cell wall. The glycan cross-linking is essential for the cell to build its cell wall. Inhibition of the biosynthesis results to a weakened cell wall, which eventually ruptures to osmotic pressure. The combined action results in cell lysis and filament formation. Cefalexin is active against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic bacteria: Staphylococcus spp. (including penicillin-resistant strains), Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Salmonella spp. and Pasteurella multocida. Cefalexin is not inactivated by b-lactamases produced by gram-positive bacteria and which usually affect penicillins. Cefalexin had a time-dependent bactericidal activity on both tested bacteria species, Staphylococcus felis (gram-positive) and Pasteurella multocida (gram-negative). In vitro activity of cefalexin towards European strains isolated in 2003-2006 in cats exhibiting cutaneous or subcutaneous infections showed that the MIC90 was 2 mg/ml for Staphylococcus spp. and Pasteurella spp. and 0.5 µg/ml for Streptococcus spp.. These susceptible genera were also the bacteria the most-frequently isolated from wounds and abscesses in cats. Resistance to cefalexin may be due to one of the following mechanisms of resistance. Firstly, the production of various beta-lactamases (cephalosporinase), that inactivate the antibiotic, is the most prevalent mechanism among gram-negative bacteria. Secondly, a decreased affinity of the PBPs (penicillin-binding proteins) for b-lactam drugs is frequently involved for b-lactam resistant gram-positive bacteria. Lastly, efflux pumps, extruding the antibiotic from the bacterial cell, and structural changes in porins, reducing passive diffusion of the drug through the cell wall, may contribute to improve the resistant phenotype of a bacterium. Well-known cross-resistance (involving the same resistance mechanism) exists between antibiotics belonging to the b-lactam group due to structural similarities. It occurs with b-lactamases enzymes, structural changes in porins or variations in efflux pumps. Co-resistance (different resistance mechanisms involved) has been described in E.coli due to a plasmid harbouring various resistance genes.
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
Dogs After single oral administration of the recommended dosage of 15 mg of cefalexin per kg of bodyweight to Beagle dogs, plasma concentrations were observed within 30 minutes. The plasma peak was observed at 1.3 hour with a plasma concentration of 18.2 mg/ml. The bioavailability of the active was over 90 %. Cefalexin was detected until 24 hours after the administration. The first urine specimen was collected within 2 to 12 hours with peak concentrations of cefalexin measured at 430 to 2758 mg/ml within 12 hours.
After repeated oral administration of the same dosage, twice a day for 7 days, plasma peaks occurred 2 hours later with a concentration of 20 mg/ml. Over the treatment period, concentrations were maintained above 1 mg/ml. The mean elimination half-life is 2 hours. Skin levels were around 5.8 to 6.6 mg/g, 2 hours after treatment.
Cats A single oral administration of 15 mg of cefalexin per kg of bodyweight in cats led to a bioavailability of 56 %. The plasma peak was observed at 1.55 hour following administration with a plasma concentration above 15.1 mg/ml. The mean plasma half-life was about 1 to 2 hours. The first urine specimen was collected between 4 and 24 hours with the highest concentrations ranging between 63.7 and 393 mg/ml, occurring within 24 hours.
With the same dosage administered over 7 days, twice a day, the highest urine concentration of cefalexin reached between 518 and 1256 mg/ml.
6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS OF Rilexine 75mg
6.1 List of excipients
- Crospovidone - Mannitol - Starch pregelantinised - Croscarmellose sodium - Collodial anhydrous silica - Collodial hydrated silica - Povidone - Microcrystalline cellulose (type A) - Poultry liver powder - Magnesium stearate - Microcrystalline cellulose (type B)
6.3 Shelf life
Shelf life of the veterinary product as packaged for sale: 2 years
6.4 Special precautions for storage
The product should be stored in the retailing package. Protect from light.